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Title: Pan paniscus (errata version published in 2016)
Author(s): Fruth, Barbara
Hickey, Jena R
Andre, Claudine
Furuichi, Takeshi
Hart, John
Hart, Terese
Kuehl, Hjalmar
Maisels, Fiona
Nackoney, Janet
Reinartz, Gay
Sop, Tenekwetche
Thompson, Jo
Williamson, Elizabeth A
Issue Date: 24-Mar-2016
Date Deposited: 21-Mar-2018
Publisher: IUCN
Citation: Fruth B, Hickey JR, Andre C, Furuichi T, Hart J, Hart T, Kuehl H, Maisels F, Nackoney J, Reinartz G, Sop T, Thompson J & Williamson EA (2016) Pan paniscus (errata version published in 2016). IUCN Red List [IUCN Red List Assessment web page] 24.03.2016. ;
Abstract: Due to high levels of illegal hunting, and habitat destruction and degradation,Pan paniscusis estimated to have experienced a significant population reduction in the last 15–20 years and it is thought that this reduction will continue for the next 60 years. Currently, by far the greatest threat to the Bonobo's survival is poaching for the commercial bushmeat trade. It has been estimated that nine tons of bushmeat are extracted daily from a 50,000-km² conservation landscape within the Bonobo’s range. Not only is there is a massive demand for bushmeat stemming from the cities, but rebel factions and poorly-paid government soldiers add to that demand, at the same time facilitating the flow of guns and ammunition (Fruthet al. 2013). In some areas, local taboos against eating Bonobo meat still exist, but in others, these traditions are disintegrating due to changing cultural values and population movements. Stricter enforcement of wildlife laws and more effective management are urgently needed. Habitat loss through deforestation and fragmentation ranks second. Much of the forest loss in this region is caused by slash-and-burn subsistence agriculture, which is most intense where human densities are high or growing. Logging and mining do not yet occur on an industrial scale in the Bonobo’s range, but in future, industrial agriculture is very likely to become a serious threat. Minimising the conversion of intact forest to human-dominated land uses, will be critical for the future survival of Bonobos. Countrywide factors contributing to the decline include the mobility of growing human populations, opening markets, commercial exploitation of natural resources and road construction. As in the past, the survival of Bonobos will be determined by the levels of poaching and forest loss—threats that have been shown to accompany rapid growth in human populations and political instability (Nackoneyet al. 2014). Due to their slow life history and a generation time estimated to be 25 years, Bonobo populations cannot withstand high levels of offtake. The population decline over a three-generation (75 year) period from 2003 to 2078 is likely to exceed 50%, hence qualifying this taxon as Endangered under criterion A.
Type: Blog Post/Website Contribution
DOI Link: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T15932A17964305.en
Rights: © 2017 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Reproduction of this publication for educational or other non-commercial purposes is authorized without prior written permission from the copyright holder provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of this publication for resale, reposting or other commercial purposes is prohibited without prior written permission from the copyright holder.
Affiliation: Ludwig Maximilian University, Germany
International Gorilla Conservation Programme
Lola Ya Bonobo Sanctuary
Kyoto University
Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project
Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Biological and Environmental Sciences
University of Maryland
Zoological Society of Milwaukee, USA
University of Hamburg
Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project

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