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Appears in Collections:Computing Science and Mathematics Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: GMM-IL: Image Classification Using Incrementally Learnt, Independent Probabilistic Models for Small Sample Sizes
Author(s): Johnston, Penny
Nogueira, Keiller
Swingler, Kevin
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Keywords: Task analysis
Image classification
Probabilistic logic
Neural networks
Gaussian mixture model
Issue Date: 2023
Date Deposited: 28-Apr-2023
Citation: Johnston P, Nogueira K & Swingler K (2023) GMM-IL: Image Classification Using Incrementally Learnt, Independent Probabilistic Models for Small Sample Sizes. <i>IEEE Access</i>, 11, pp. 25492-25501.
Abstract: When deep-learning classifiers try to learn new classes through supervised learning, they exhibit catastrophic forgetting issues. In this paper we propose the Gaussian Mixture Model - Incremental Learner (GMM-IL), a novel two-stage architecture that couples unsupervised visual feature learning with supervised probabilistic models to represent each class. The key novelty of GMM-IL is that each class is learnt independently of the other classes. New classes can be incrementally learnt using a small set of annotated images with no requirement to relearn data from existing classes. This enables the incremental addition of classes to a model, that can be indexed by visual features and reasoned over based on perception. Using Gaussian Mixture Models to represent the independent classes, we outperform a benchmark of an equivalent network with a Softmax head, obtaining increased accuracy for sample sizes smaller than 12 and increased weighted F1 score for 3 imbalanced class profiles in that sample range. This novel method enables new classes to be added to a system with only access to a few annotated images of the new class.
DOI Link: 10.1109/access.2023.3255795
Rights: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. For more information, see
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