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Appears in Collections:History and Politics Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: 'Formal Adoption - Informal Subversion': Limits of International Constitutional Assistance
Author(s): Adhikari, Monalisa
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Keywords: International constitutional assistance
conflict-affected states
Issue Date: 12-May-2023
Date Deposited: 23-May-2023
Citation: Adhikari M (2023) ‘Formal Adoption – Informal Subversion’: Limits of International Constitutional Assistance. <i>Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding</i>.
Abstract: Peace processes involve reforming or rewriting constitutions as a pathway to establishing an inclusive state, often with international constitutional assistance (ICA). Examining Nepal’s post-conflict constitution-writing process, this article explores why ICA fails to deliver on inclusion. It argues that ICA’s prioritisation of formal aspects – inclusive institutional design and participatory process – makes it unable to influence informal politics through which elites informally subvert formal commitments on inclusive institutions in a bid to retain their power. This ‘formal adoption-informal subversion’ of inclusion-related commitments by elites is enabled by elites adopting four strategies, namely neglect, overwrite, trade-off, and exploit of formal commitments.
DOI Link: 10.1080/17502977.2023.2202490
Rights: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way. The terms on which this article has been published allow the posting of the Accepted Manuscript in a repository by the author(s) or with their consent.
Notes: Output Status: Forthcoming/Available Online
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