Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Appears in Collections:Psychology Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: An Interactive Text Message Survey as a Novel Assessment for Bedtime Routines in Public Health Research: Observational Study
Author(s): Kitsaras, George
Goodwin, Michaela
Allan, Julia
Kelly, Michael
Pretty, Iain
Contact Email:
Keywords: digital technologies
mobile health
bedtime routines
P4 health care
text survey
Issue Date: 21-Dec-2020
Date Deposited: 20-Nov-2023
Citation: Kitsaras G, Goodwin M, Allan J, Kelly M & Pretty I (2020) An Interactive Text Message Survey as a Novel Assessment for Bedtime Routines in Public Health Research: Observational Study. <i>JMIR Public Health and Surveillance</i>, 6 (4), Art. No.: e15524.
Abstract: Background: Traditional research approaches, especially questionnaires and paper-based assessments, limit in-depth understanding of the fluid dynamic processes associated with child well-being and development. This includes bedtime routine activities such as toothbrushing and reading a book before bed. The increase in innovative digital technologies alongside greater use and familiarity among the public creates unique opportunities to use these technical developments in research. Objective: This study aimed to (1) examine the best way of assessing bedtime routines in families and develop an automated, interactive, text message survey assessment delivered directly to participants' mobile phones and (2) test the assessment within a predominately deprived sociodemographic sample to explore retention, uptake, feedback, and effectiveness. Methods: A public and patient involvement project showed clear preference for interactive text surveys regarding bedtime routines. The developed interactive text survey included questions on bedtime routine activities and was delivered for seven consecutive nights to participating parents' mobile phones. A total of 200 parents participated. Apart from the completion of the text survey, feedback was provided by participants, and data on response, completion, and retention rates were captured. Results: There was a high retention rate (185/200, 92.5%), and the response rate was high (160/185, 86.5%). In total, 114 participants provided anonymized feedback. Only a small percentage (5/114, 4.4%) of participants reported problems associated with completing the assessment. The majority (99/114, 86.8%) of participants enjoyed their participation in the study, with an average satisfaction score of 4.6 out of 5. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the potential of deploying SMS text message–based surveys to capture and quantify real-time information on recurrent dynamic processes in public health research. Changes and adaptations based on recommendations are crucial next steps in further exploring the diagnostic and potential intervention properties of text survey and text messaging approaches.
DOI Link: 10.2196/15524
Rights: ©George Kitsaras, Michaela Goodwin, Julia Allan, Michael Kelly, Iain Pretty. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (, 21.12.2020. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.
Licence URL(s):

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
PDF (1).pdfFulltext - Published Version204.04 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

This item is protected by original copyright

A file in this item is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons

Items in the Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

The metadata of the records in the Repository are available under the CC0 public domain dedication: No Rights Reserved

If you believe that any material held in STORRE infringes copyright, please contact providing details and we will remove the Work from public display in STORRE and investigate your claim.